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In this page, we would like to share about the kimono types of weaving.

Chirimen crepe
Kyoto and Shiga prefectures are the two major production areas. When making crepe, yarns are twisted tightly in the weft to give the fabric an uneven texture called "Shibo" in Japanese. To make crepe fabric, right-twisted and left-twisted threads are alternately woven into the fabric. Afterwards, when the starch is removed in warm water, a force is generated that tries to return the twisted threads. As the right-twisted yarn splits to the left and the left-twisted yarn splits to the right, the surface of the cloth becomes "wrinkled and uneven".
The figured satin
The figured satin is a type of satin weave, a lustrous fabric woven with untwisted warp and weft yarns. This is a white fabric for after-dyeing, in which degumming is done after the fabric is woven. It is characterized by its luster and glossy surface patterns, and is used for Juban and Obiage in addition to kimonos.
This is a satin-weave, high-grade fabric in which the yarn is degummed first, and then dyed to express a clear multi-colored pattern through weaving, by changing the colors of the warp and weft yarns. The woven fabric is characterized by its solemn beauty and deep luster. It is a firm fabric that is used not only for kimonos but also for formal obi.
TSUMUGI (pongee)
TSUMUGI pongee is a kimono made of silk yarn woven into a plain weave. It is woven using silk yarn that has been degummed and pre-dyed in its thread form. Unlike raw silk, which has a unique luster, the fabric woven with pongee yarn has a calm luster and an uneven surface that gives it a unique texture. It is strong and light, and is recommended for daily wear and casual wear.
Here are some examples of TSUMUGI.
OSHIMA TSUMUGI is a pre-yarn-dyed kimono made mainly on Amami Oshima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture using 100% pure silk twisted yarn, and is counted among the world's three major textiles along with France's Gobelins weave and Iran's Persian carpet. The traditional technique of hand-weaving is used, in which hand-spun yarns are dyed dark brown with the infusion of a plant called "teech wood" (shalinbai), which is found in the Amami area, and mud containing iron. 30 or more processes are involved in the production of this Kimono, and it takes six months to a year to produce one piece. It has beautiful patterns, a deep gloss that can be compared to the color of wet feathers of a crow, a supple texture, and a light and comfortable fit.
"MURAYAMA" in "MURAYAMA OSHIMA TSUMUGI" refers to Murayama in Musashimurayama City, Tokyo, which indicates the place of production. The method of manufacturing MURAYAMA OSHIMA TSUMUGI is different from OSHIMA TSUMUGI because it uses the "Itajime" technique, in which the design is dyed on yarn by wooden board engraved with the pattern. The name "OSHIMA" came to be used because of its similarity to OSHIMA TSUMUGI in appearance and color.
TOKAMACHI TSUMUGI is a type of TUMUGI pongee produced in Tokamachi, Niigata Prefecture. TOKAMACHI TUMUGI has been a prosperous weaving area since ancient times. During the snowy winters when farming was not possible, weaving was the main occupation. The most distinctive feature of TOKAMACHI TSUMUGI is the "Kasuri" pattern. The patterns skillfully woven with warp and weft yarns are diverse, ranging from traditional patterns such as lattices and "Kasuri" patterns to modern patterns that can be worn like clothes.
YUKI TSUMUGI is a silk woven kimono mainly produced in Ibaraki and Tochigi prefectures. It has been a high-class fabric since the Nara period (710-794) and is designated as an important intangible cultural property by the government. Most of the top-quality products feature fine stripes and "Kasuri" (patterns) created by modern technological innovations. Originally, it was a stiff and strong fabric, but now it is often described as "light and soft" because the yarn has become thinner as the "Kasuri" has become more precise.
KASIRI (Splashed pattern)
"Kasuri"(splashed pattern) is a pattern or a type of kimono characterized by patterns that appear to have a blurred outline. The part of the yarn that is left white according to the pattern is dyed by wrapping it tightly with thread or tightening it with a board to prevent dyeing, resulting in a "Kasuri" yarn that is partially dyed white. These yarns are then used as warp or weft yarns, and the white areas are used as intersections for weaving.
Meisen is a textile characterized by even more vivid and bold colors and patterns using the Kasuri(Splashed pattern) technique. The patterns are not limited to the traditional Japanese style, but many of them are influenced by Western art such as Art Deco and Cubism. Even today, it is positioned as a synonym for antique kimono, and there are many production areas.
This is a white silk fabric for after-degumming, after-dyeing, combining plain weave and "Mojiri" weave. "Mojiri" weaving is a weaving technique in which two warp threads are twisted and interwoven with the weft threads, thus creating gaps in the weave. It is well known as a summer kimono because of its good air permeability.
Like "Ro", this is a "Mojiri"-weave fabric used for summer kimonos. It is more transparent, cooler, and more breathable than "Ro" because the spaces between the threads are evenly spaced throughout the fabric.
"Ra" is a more complex weaving method of "Sha", with more gaps in the weave than "Sha", giving it a texture similar to hand-knitting.
The official name is "Omeshi Chirimen" and it is the most prestigious and highest quality kimono fabric among woven kimono. The 11th Tokugawa Shogun, Ienari, liked to wear it, which is why it was called the Shogun's "dress" and hence the name "Omeshi". Fine yarns of high quality are used, which are degumming and dyed in advance. While crepe uses twisted yarns only in the weft, "Omeshi" uses strong twisted yarns in both warp and weft, and the surface of the fabric is characterized by larger and clearer wrinkles than that of crape.
"Chijimi" is a plain weave fabric woven using highly twisted yarn for the weft. The fabric is made from various materials such as silk, cotton, hemp, and synthetic fibers, etc. The surface of the woven fabric is given an uneven texture called "Shibo" by degumming.
OJIYA-CHIJIMI is a hemp fabric made from ramie, which is produced in the area around Ojiya City, Niigata Prefecture. It has been designated as an important intangible cultural asset by the national government and registered as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO.
A thin, plain-weave hemp fabric made from hemp, called ramie. It is a pre-degumming and pre-dyed kimono with a silky sheen because of the fine threads produced by tearing the hemp fibers into small pieces.

In the next page, we will introduce dyed kimono.
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